Veterinary Referral & Emergency Center's team of oncologists provide compassionate, state-of-the-art cancer care to your pets, while actively pursuing better ways to diagnose, treat and prevent cancer in all animals. As with cancer in humans, the best approach to the treatment of many cancers often requires a combination of several different types of treatments. With proper diagnosis and a combined treatment plan, the likelihood of a successful outcome is increased. Our Oncology Department oncology specialists believe in exploring every possible avenue of treatment, including experimental and alternative therapies.
Our Oncology Department's advanced diagnostics include:
- Cytology - evaluating cells on a microscope slide to determine if they are malignant or benign
- CBC/Diff - a complete blood count evaluating the number and type of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets present
- Chemistry - the analysis of the blood that evaluates, among other things, liver and kidney function
- Digital Radiography - Digital images can have enhanced quality and allow for more accurate viewing of body structures.
- Ultrasound - the evaluation of the abdomen, internal organs, and heart non-invasively with sound waves
- CT scan - the evaluation of the body with high resolution x-rays that allows us to form a three dimensional picture of the body
- MRI scan - the use of magnetic fields to evaluate the body, including the brain
- Immunophenotyping - using special stains to determine the cell type; used most frequently to determine whether lymphocytes are T cells or B cells
- Immunocytochemistry - the use of special stains to determine the type of leukemia an animal has or to identify cells that cannot be identified under normal light microscopy
- Bone Marrow - the removal and evaluation of bone marrow cells to determine if the cells are normal, if cancer has spread to the bone marrow, or if there is a problem with blood cell production.
Specialized Treatment Protocols and Services
Depending upon the grade, stage and type of cancer, our team will recommend one or a combination of treatment options. Multiple treatment options that combine surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the rule rather than the exception. Treatment of cancer in animals has become as sophisticated and successful as the treatment of cancer in humans.
Immunotherapy is the use of the body's immune system to treat a disease. We use immunotherapy to treat certain cancers, such as: melanoma, hemangiosarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma among others. There are various types of immunotherapy ranging from cancer vaccines to injecting cytokines (chemicals that stimulate the body's own immune system). One of the advantages of immunotherapy is that it is generally less toxic than traditional chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy is used to treat cancer at the tumor site, as well as the cancer that may have spread through the body. Most chemotherapeutic drugs act directly on cancer cells, preventing them from maturing or reproducing. Unlike humans, the side effects of chemotherapy in pets are relatively mild. Doses of drugs and treatment schedules are calculated to minimize discomfort to the pet, while providing the most effective defense against the cancer. The goal is to slow the growth of cancer cells, while producing minimal negative effects on normal cells.
Surgery is the oldest form of cancer therapy and has been responsible for the cure of more patients than any other treatment. This great success is mainly due to the development of new surgical techniques combined with chemotherapy and radiation for a total plan of treatment for your pet's cancer.
Radiation therapy is often used in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The use of histopathology, MRI, and CT scans has resulted in accurate diagnosis of the type and location of tumors. New technology has increased the effectiveness and decreased the side effects and risks of radiation therapy.
What Is A Veterinary Oncologist?
A board certified veterinary oncologist is a veterinary internal medicine specialist who has also obtained additional training in veterinary oncology. A veterinary oncologist has specialized knowledge in the diagnosis of cancer, the staging of tumors, the development of treatment plans, and the administration of chemotherapy. When your pet is faced with cancer, a veterinary oncologist will typically work in concert with your pet's general practitioner veterinarian in order to obtain the best possible medical outcome for your pet. A veterinary oncologist can help your pet by developing treatment plans that incorporate one or all of the following options:
While your general practitioner veterinarian can diagnose and treat many health problems, certain diseases like cancer require the care of a doctor who has had specialized, intensive training in veterinary oncology.
Why Does My Pet Need A Veterinary Oncologist?
Just as in humans, a pet with cancer typically needs the help of an oncologist to help diagnose and treat the disease. Veterinary oncologists determine the most appropriate course of treatment and coordinate the treatment program for pets with cancer. They also frequently serve as consultants to veterinarians in private practice to ensure that their patients receive the best treatment possible for their cancer. You can be assured that a veterinarian who refers you and your pet to a veterinary oncologist is one that is caring and committed to ensuring that your pet receives the highest standard of medical care for his or her illness.
While in some cases, your veterinarian may be able to simply consult with the veterinary oncologist about your pet's care, in other cases it is necessary to actually refer you and your pet to the veterinary oncologist for more advanced diagnostics and treatment. Board certified veterinary internists/oncologists may also have access to specialized diagnostic or treatment tools that a general practitioner veterinarian may not have.
My Pet Has Cancer. Now What?
Cancer does appear to be becoming more common in pets, most likely because they are simply living longer. The most important point to realize about this dreaded disease, however, is that just as in people, many forms of the disease can be easily treated, managed, and even cured. Early detection and specialized care are leading to increased survival and cure rates in almost all the types of cancers that afflict pets. From surgery to chemotherapy to radiation therapy, veterinary cancer specialists can offer your pet the very latest diagnostic and treatment options and the best chance of survival. With optimal treatment, cancer in many cases simply becomes another manageable chronic disease.
If your pet is diagnosed with cancer, it is important not to become overwhelmed. Ask your veterinarian to write down the most important points for you to review later. Although the disease is serious, treatment decisions generally do not need to be made quickly. If your pet is diagnosed with cancer, however, you will either want to have your general practice veterinarian work in consultation with a veterinary oncologist, or be referred to one of these specialists for your pet's treatment.
- Common Cancers
- Skin tumors
- Mammary tumors
- Endocrine tumors
Will My Regular Veterinarian Still Be Involved?
In most cases, your regular veterinarian will still supervise your pet's veterinary care and will work in tandem with the veterinary oncologist, veterinary radiation oncologist, and any other members of your pet's veterinary health care team.
Did You Know?
Dogs and cats have higher age adjusted incidence rates for many kinds of cancers than do humans. For example, dogs are 35 times more likely to get skin cancer than are humans. They suffer from 8 times the amount of bone cancer and 4 times the amount of breast cancer. However, humans are more likely to get lung and stomach cancers than pets.
Frequently Asked Questions
- What Additional Training Does A Veterinary Oncologist Have?
Any veterinarian who wants to specialize in oncology must first be certified as an internal medicine specialist. Veterinarians who want to become board certified in internal medicine must seek additional, intensive training to become a specialist and earn this prestigious credentialing. Specialty status is granted by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). A veterinarian who has received this specialty status will list the initials, 'DACVIM,' after his or her DVM degree. Or, the veterinarian may indicate that he or she is a 'Diplomate' of the ACVIM. The word 'Diplomate' typically means the specialist has achieved the following:
• Obtained a traditional 8 year veterinary degree (four years of college plus four years of veterinary school).
• Completed an additional three to six years of advanced training, including a residency at a veterinary teaching hospital where the veterinarian will have trained with some of the best experts in the field and obtained hands on experience.
• Completed the credentialing application process established by the ACVIM
• Passed a rigorous general examination.
Once a veterinarian is board certified in internal medicine, he or she may seek additional specialty status in veterinary oncology. Internal medicine specialists must obtain additional training in this area and sit for a second, even more intensive examination. These doctors will list their credentials after their boarded status, for example, as 'DAVCIM (Oncology).'
When your pet needs the care of a veterinary internal medicine specialist/veterinary oncologist, years of intensive training and additional education will be focused on helping him or her to recover from the disease and/or enjoy the highest quality of life possible.
- Will Chemotherapy Make My Pet Sick?
Your veterinary oncologist will give you specific instructions regarding your pet's chemotherapy, but in general, you should be aware that pets typically handle chemotherapy regimens far better than people do. First, as cancer treatment for both humans and small animals has become more sophisticated, the side effects created by chemotherapy regimens have become less severe. Second, chemotherapy administration in animals is less aggressive than it is in humans, so animals typically do not become as sick from the side effects as do people.
Finally, veterinary oncologists have many options at their disposal to help keep your pet comfortable during treatment for his or her disease. From pain management options to special nutritional recommendations to medications that can help lessen the nausea associated with chemotherapy, be assured that veterinary oncologists can keep most pets surprisingly comfortable during treatment. In fact, one of the biggest hurdles to treating pets with cancer is that many owners imagine their pet's treatment will be more difficult than it really is.
- What are Cancer Treatment Methods?
The goal of cancer therapy is to destroy abnormal cancer cells while sparing normal cells. An important difference in human vs. animal oncology is that the goal with humans, due to our extended life spans, is to cure the disease. In animals, the goal is more to extend the length of life while still maintaining its
quality. In many cases, a veterinary oncologist will combine some or all of the treatment options outlined below in order to provide the very best outcome for your pet.
• Radiation Treatment
- How Can I Keep My Pet From Getting Cancer?
Just as in people, there is no proven way to keep your pet from getting cancer. You can, however, take steps to minimize the risks. Avoid any known predisposing causes, such as not spaying or neutering pets, or leaving pets exposed to sunlight. Also make sure your pet has regularly scheduled checkups and follow your veterinarian's advice regarding any necessary screening tests.
Services Offered in Oncology
- Electrocardiography (ECG)
- Blood chemistry analyzer
- Coagulation analyzer
- Hematology analyzer
- In-house STAT laboratory
- Viral testing
- Computed Tomography (CT scanning)
- Digital radiography
- Transfusion therapy
- Continuous ECG monitoring and telemetry
- Pulse oximetry and end tidal capnography
- Nasal and transtracheal oxygen therapy
- Nasojejunal tube placement
- Radiation treatment
- Bone Marrow Aspirate
- Cancer Staging
- Palliative treatment of cancer pain
- Tissue biopsies
- Genetic screening
- Neonatal critical care