VCA Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center

Neuromuscular disease diagnosis and management


Electroencephalography is the measurement of the spontaneous electrical activity of brain. It is non-invasive examination during which tiny small needles are placed under skin, while the animal is in sedation (sleeping) for about 20 minutes. EEG is usually performed in patients with seizures or where seizures are suspected. EEG currently is the only examination which can positively confirm presence of epileptic activity in the brain of the animal and therefore is the most useful in differentiation of the epileptic and non-epileptic events.

Another important role of EEG is in treatment of status epilepticus (continuous seizure) patients. In these cases EEG is the only tool which is able to say objectively if the patient has been treated sufficiently or not as the EEG is showing if the brain has calmed down already or not.


EMG is the recording of the electrical activity of the muscle. During the test the small needle is inserted in to the muscle and the activity recorded. EMG is done on a patient under deep sedation or general anesthesia therefore no pain is felt during examination.

Normal resting muscle is generally electrically silent. In abnormal muscle there is spontaneous activity and based on the characteristics of this activity, may tell us the kind of process present in the muscle. EMG helps to confirm the existence of disease of the peripheral nervous system and helps to distinguish between primary nerve and muscle disease. It says precisely if the muscle atrophy is because of disease of the muscle or nerve or because of because of too little activity. In case the nerve(s) of the patient have been damaged during trauma episode, the so called denervation potentials will be detectable on EMG 5 days after trauma. The measurement of the denervation potentials in different muscles will tell the examiner which nerves have been traumatized.

Nerve conduction studies

Nerve conduction studies evaluate the function of the peripheral nerves. In the clinical practice, the function of the motor nerves is the most commonly evaluated. The measurement is done while the patient is under general anesthesia. Two small needles are inserted near the nerve and the nerve is stimulated with low electrical current. The stimulation of the nerve initiates muscle contraction. Distance from the stimulation to the recording site is measured as well as time needed for impulse to arrive to the muscle. Changes in the nerve conduction velocity indicate damage to the axon of the nerve, to its myelin sheath or both. Nerve conduction velocity helps to confirm the presence of the peripheral nerve disease and to choose the right nerve for the further investigation such as nerve biopsy.

Nerve and muscle biopsies

Nerve and muscle biopsies are often taken at the same time as the electrodiagnostic testing. This is a minor surgery, and typically the patients will go home the same day. Often they will go home on some pain medication for a few days. The biopsies are done so a pathologist who specializes in looking at nerves and muscles can evaluate these organs under a microscope. We will be able to see if there is any infectious or cancerous process occurring. Sometimes, we can tell prognosis from the biopsies as well.


Internal Medicine

General Practice

We have over 600 animal hospitals in 41 states and 4 Canadian provinces that are staffed by more than 3,000 fully-qualified, dedicated and compassionate veterinarians, with more than 400 being board-certified specialists.

The nationwide VCA family of general practice hospitals give your pet the very best in medical care, providing a full range of general medical and surgical services as well as specialized treatments such as wellness, spay/neuter, advanced diagnostic services (MRI/CT Scan), internal medicine, oncology, ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology, neurology, boarding, and grooming. Services may vary by location.

Our family of pet hospitals stands out by delivering the greatest resources in order provide the highest quality care available for your pets. By maintaining the highest standards of pet health care available anywhere, we emphasize prevention as well as healing. We provide continuing education programs to our doctors and staff and promote the open exchange of professional knowledge and expertise. And finally, we have established a consistent program of procedures and techniques, proven to be the most effective in keeping pets healthy.

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Emergency Care

24/7/365, if your pet has a medical emergency, you can find us at the following address:

VCA Veterinary Referral & Emergency Center
123 West Cedar Street, Norwalk, CT 06854
Telephone: 203-854-9960

Click here for directions to our location.

VCA Veterinary Referral & Emergency Center is a fully-equipped 24/7/365 emergency hospital serving pets and their people in Norwalk and the surrounding communities in Fairfield County and southwestern Connecticut. If you suspect your pet is having a medical crisis, our experienced team of veterinarians, technicians and assistants are here to assist you.

Our Emergency and Critical Care units can assist in all of the following situations requiring immediate medical attention: Auto accidents, traumatic injuries (fractures, bites, burns, lacerations, wounds), respiratory emergencies (choking, difficulty breathing), vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty urinating/defecating, shock, loss of consciousness, dizziness, staggering, tremors, seizures, paralysis, toxic reactions, poison ingestion, labor and delivery problems, blood in urine or feces, swollen, hard, painful abdomen, heatstroke.