Abdominal ultrasonography-abdominocentesis and cystocentesis
Abdominal ultrasonography, performed using an ultrasound machine, allows for visualization of abdominal anatomical structures. Aided with ultrasound gel, the transmission and reflection of ultrasound waves make internal organs through the abdominal wall visible.
Abdominocentesis is the process of inserting a small gauge needle into the abdomen to evaluate if fluid is present and obtain a sample for further testing. This quick procedure can be done on an outpatient basis, will not typically require sedation and may be performed with ultrasound guidance. If excessive abdominal fluid is causing discomfort, abdominocentesis might also be recommended as a palliative treatment.
Cystocentesis is the process of inserting a small gauge needle into the urinary bladder through the abdomen to obtain a sample of urine. When performed for diagnostic purposes, a cystocentesis keeps the sample sterile, preventing it from becoming contaminated with bacteria, cells, and other debris from the lower urogenital tract.